In response to this influx, the government of the Transvaal, the small Boer republic under whose jurisdiction the Witwatersrand fell, dispatched two men, Vice President Christiaan Johannes Joubert and Deputy Surveyor-General Johann Rissik, to inspect the goldfields and identify a suitable city site. Learn how your comment data is processed. A SHORT HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA. The Chinese clubs were described as breaking the drabness and monotony of life in Ferreira’s. The new synagogue had a mikveh next to it for the use of the very devout 6. 8 of these were in Commissioner Street. Ferreira’s Camp was one of three early camps where diggers and fortune seekers coming to Johannesburg settled. Two days later he submitted a second letter asking that Langlaagte and Turffontein also be declared public diggings. In addition to the alcohol, they sold food and arranged for entertainment in the form of a band, piano player, choir, or dancers, depending on affordability. 500 more white people were moved to Waterval Farm. Her signature is evidently on the first Standard Bank list of customers. Stone-walled ruins of Sotho–Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal in which Johannesburg is situated. Only when Randjeslaagte was laid out and proclaimed a village, could proper hotel licenses be issued. ‘Town beer’ had to be made quickly to avoid detection by the police. Both the library and magistrates’ designs were won by Perry via design competitions. It was part of the clearance for the Magistrates Court buildings after which the organisation moved to the Beth Hamedrash for a short time. Visit her blog HERE, Smith, A, 1971. The original Chinatown was centered around the western part of Commissioner Street in the Ferreirasdorp area bounded by Commissioner, Market, Fox, Alexander, and Becker Streets. The first motorcar drives through Johannesburg and Nkosi Sikelel 'iAfrika is composed by Enoch Sontonga. those with South African citizenship) are descendants of immigrants from China who arrived after 1870 and came from the Guandong Province of South China. As the scale of the gold deposits became apparent, Johannesburg became the 19th century’s last great boomtown. O-166 Cottage and additions 1896/6 The Transvaal Chinese Association was founded in 1903 and led the Chinese passive resistance movement being the major representative body at the time. Other than that, they lived, worked, and existed on opposite ends of the town. The building dates to the late 1890s, but only started being used as the Chinese United club in 1909. The Tambo-Mandela law offices were in Chancellor House, on the corner of Becker and Fox streets, and thus close to where we lived. Loonat as attorneys and Unterhalter and Bizos as advocates. Three men stole beer, brandy, candles, and knives from a wood and iron house which was formerly Edgson’s canteen used as a storeroom for Bussey’s Central Hotel. No board or authority has to be consulted.” JHB Central police station opened in 1968 (designed by Harris, Fels, Sacks, Jankes, and Nussbaum) was once known as John Vorster Square, the notorious building of the Apartheid regime where interrogations, torturing, and detention was the order of the day. V-138 Shops and ‘native eating house’ 1906 Chinese connection This proclamation was in part due to Col. Ferreira who presented a petition to President Kruger on 26th July 1886 signed by 74 others saying payable gold has been found in Ward Klipriver and that it be declared a public goldfield. Most lived in Ferreirastown and adjacent Marshalltown (with a small number settling in various parts of the southern suburbs like Turffontein, Ophirton, and La Rochelle). History Early history. One way of selling skokiaan was to fill up a bicycle tube (or tubes) and wear it around the waist under clothes. They felt there was no point in building a mosque, and were busy negotiating the sale of the land for R70,000-00 to a company based in Johannesburg’. Johannesburg’s Beth Mamedrash Hagodol and it’s legacy. This ambitious hotel took up stands 1 – 3 & 9 -12 of the block. With perching rods attached to the sculpture, the artworks serve the dual purpose of a landmark and refuge for pigeons. St. Mary's Church built. In 1918 a training centre/school was erected at stand 206 or 10 Main street which was one stand away to the west from the church. Heights Hotel (Source: Mining Camp to Metropolis), Heights Hotel (Source: S. A. Designed by Robertson for owners Davidson & Morros presumably to take advantage of the potential customer base close to the mines. On the 11 October 1887, the South African Republic bought the contract for 5000 Pounds and incorporated the area into Johannesburg. Sephis E-magazine. Then there was Kosi Café, which was directly below the Tambo-Mandela offices in Chancellor House. Ferreirastown Chinese quarter c1913 (Source: Museum Africa). The church was restored in 2012. Even today the massive Anglo American corporate buildings continue to dominate the landscape. Bertrams. Vol.1 No.2 December 2004. https://ziladoc.com/download/contents-122_pdf [Accessed 22 March 2020], Norwich, R. 2013. Thanks Mo! ), Cantonese Club buildings Alexander Str 1955 (Source: Museum Africa). This house was rented from Harry Filmer (and was also used for early Catholic services prior to the first Catholic church in Smal Street). Thanks. The first school was started by Mr. Duff. It predates the birth of Johannesburg by several months and holds the early history of Africans, Chinese, Jewish, and Indian communities in the mining town that eventually became a city. The scene of the last great gold rush, it took less than 100 years for precious metal to turn a stretch of unprepossessing scrubland into South Africa’s economic hub. Today, Johannesburg is home to no less than 5 million inhabitants. As more people flowed into the area, the camp became something of a settlement. The survivors merely moved to other overcrowded areas in the town, thus exacerbating the slum conditions and racial intermingling. In early 1886, gold was discovered on the Witwatersrand ridge. There was a chemist, butcher, general dealers, a small school, drinking establishments, a post office, and the first hotel – Edgson’s Hotel. Eshak and Tayob point to the complex history of the Muslim community in Johannesburg. An article in ‘The Junior Red Cross Magazine’ from November 1949 spoke about the earliest days of Johannesburg that may have inspired the name Westgate. Standing three metres tall, the sculptures form a triangle in Pigeon Square. Alfred, Mike (2003) Johannesburg is then raised to the status of a town. In the 1930s, this building was a noted slum yard. Then about 2,000 years ago people in the west learned to herd sheep and cattle. One of the older inner suburbs in Johannesburg, Bertrams is surrounded by Highlands and Troyeville to the north and south respectively, and New Doornfontein and Lorentzville to the west and east respectively. Kroll who was also responsible for the Osborne Chemist in Jeppestown and the Fordsburg synagogue. A new synagogue, the Adth Yisroel Orthodox Synagogue, was built (this is possibly the Chassidic Synagogue indicated on the corner of Main and Ferreira Street) to serve the increased number of Jews in the area. Not only was this court the scene of many of the political trials, but in the absence of sporting facilities we used to play football on the lawns of the courthouse where we were constantly harassed by the police and, if caught, even beaten up. 1886 Australian prospector George Harrison discovers gold on what was then called the Witwatersrand, spurring a gold rush. “Johannesburg is their twentieth century prototype. This left Ferreira’s in a vacuum. By the early 1930s, Ferreirastown was considered a slum. The area just south of Westgate has been largely covered by the highway networks of the M1 and M2 and their various interchanges and was previously made up of mine land and dumps from the nearby Crown Mines and Robinson GM Co LTD before they were cleared for the highway ‘ring’ that was constructed in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Where does it come from? Whatever his religion may have been, he dispensed Christian charity.”, F-1-3,9-12 African / Rand Hotel 1897 Fox, Ferreira, and Commissioner Streets All the inhabitants were moved to Klipspruit, next to the site of a proposed sewage farm, which was 16km southwest of the market square. Indicated to be on the corner of Ferreira and Main. Jewish households with slum areas overlaid 1900-1925 (Source: Rubin), “By 1913 the biggest concentration of Jews was in Ferreirastown. Various businesses started operating from tents and primitive structures made from wood and corrugated iron or wattle and daub (reeds). The current building erected in 1927 designed by Baker & Fleming replaced the original wood and iron structure from 1898. The early history is not known, but it was known as Avalon Theatre in the 1950s. Some ran ‘native eating houses’ or became butchers. This rapid influx of people and the establishment of Ferreira’s Camp happened between June and December 1886. Ferreira’s Camp early sketch (Source: Johannesburg – One Hundred Years), Map of Ferreira’s Camp 1886 (Source: Harry Zeederberg), Ross, the manager of the soon to be first Standard Bank branch in Johannesburg wrote the following on the 27th September 1886, “It (Ferreira’s Camp) has about 400 inhabitants; there are 24 iron buildings, a considerable number of reed and one or two brick houses, the stores and canteens (two of very fair size), and two hotels one of which is of a very fair appearance and creditably conducted.”, Millers House Ferreira’s Camp (Source: Mining Camp to Metropolis). British troops entered Johannesburg unopposed in June 1900. It was noted by the same source that it demolished to make way for the Magistrate’s Court in 1944, but this is partly incorrect. Additions in 1921 and new residential flats and rooms in 1931 for owners Adelson brothers who also owned F-4. 1887 The Star newspaper in publication. The Marshall Square Police Station was another landmark where many political detainees were imprisoned. Both churches are a stone’s throw from the site of Ferreira’s tent, which, according to Google Earth, was situated where the mining truck is today. B-183/184 TVL Chinese United Club 1909 The first building of consequence in Ferreira’s camp was the Central Hotel. X-57, 58, 59 Reunert House 1952 In September 1899 the British government delivered an ultimatum to the Boers demanding the immediate enfranchisement of all (white) uitlanders. NYU Press. We also took advantage of the billiard room across the way from the café where many of the top gangsters of the area used to hang out. Leyds, Gerald Anton (1964). Menze. It was re-installed by Herman’s son Michael. It talks about the press being in the basement of an indistinguishable building. No known photos exist to verify. Johannesburg was the last they founded together. Witwatersrand University Press. The now photo clearly shows where this house stood. He was held in high esteem as the mayor at the time D. F. Corlett attended his funeral. Johannesburg grew to a population of over 100,000 inhabitants, one of the fastest growth cities ever recorded. Some woman brewers turned their houses into bars or shebeens at night. The demolition date may be right, but the building was not part of the Magistrate block. It is the most visited city of the African continent, and for a reason. Coloured people were moved to the Malay Location. By the inauguration of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the gold industry rested on a firm financial footing. It’s generally accepted that the Kerk Street site was used by Muslims prior to the first solid structure being built as detailed below but I was drawn to a piece of information about a plot of land of religious value near the sheds at 1 Fox Street that is owned and preserved by the Mia family. History of The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck at the Cape in 1652 heralded the beginning of wine- growing in South Africa. The entire block R is taken up by 44 Main Street, the first of two Anglo American headquarter buildings. The city was initially part of the Transvaal, an independent Afrikaner, or Boer, republic that later became one of the four provinces of South Africa. This is where Chinese culture in Johannesburg is anchored. Johannesburg, an epicentre of South Africa’s diversity and multiculturalism, can be confusing and overwhelming for the first-time visitor. Notice the headgear of the mines in the distance. John B. Ferguson designed the 1931 flats. In July 1886, one wattle and daub hotel was called Walker’s Hotel. No definitive building dates have been found, but they may pre-1900. On one side of the school is a courtyard bounded by a building where the Chinese newspaper is printed. E. H. May designed 2 cottages, 10 rooms, and outbuildings on this stand for owners Krost & Trewitsch in 1905. History of Ferreira’s Dorp (or Ferreira’s Town), Johannesburg 1912 – Suburb by suburb research, https://ziladoc.com/download/contents-122_pdf, http://penguin.bookslive.co.za/blog/2014/11/12/the-formative-years-of-a-trusted-politician-an-excerpt-from-insurgent-diplomat-by-aziz-pahad/, https://www.joburg.org.za/play_/Pages/Play%20in%20Joburg/Out%20and%20about/Links/Eating%20Out/links/The-Radium-Beer-Hall.aspx, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerk_Street_Mosque, http://www.theheritageportal.co.za/article/vision-chinatown-remarkable-mr-walter-pon, https://www.jewishgen.org/Safrica/ponevez/index.htm, https://portelizabethtimes.blogspot.com/2012/06/, https://mafiadoc.com/1913-satyagraha-passive-resistance-and-its-legacy_5a0933e01723dd099eb5f9c9.html, https://10and5.com/2017/09/07/street-view-take-a-tour-of-11-of-joburgs-most-iconic-public-artwork/, https://www.businesslive.co.za/fm/life/2020-05-21-architecture-what-anglos-exit-means-for-joburg-cbd/. Most of the business growth in Johannesburg was centered around the market square and surrounds while demand for residences came from the new suburbs in the north and east – further away from the mines, dust, and noise. When these slum areas were cleared in the late 1950s, the Chinese, given that they were a small community, were given permission on a permit basis to reside in certain parts of Johannesburg around the city like Mayfair and Belgravia. Bake house and oven for owner Vricker. Conceived in avarice, the young city nurtured every species of vice. Many ended up running very successful businesses (Tomaselli, 1983:216). Row of 4 cottages for H. Steyn, The southern portion of I block had Chinese connections as well as I-155 and I-151.
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